• a harsh smell
  • 鼻を突く臭い
  • harsh words [criticisms]
  • 厳しい言葉[批判]
  • taste harsh
  • ざらつくような味である
  • After Chaeronea, Philip inflicted a harsh punishment upon Thebes, but made peace with Athens on very lenient terms.
  • Wikipedia: Demosthenes
  • After harsh fighting, the 4th Armoured Division captured Soulangy but the gains made were minimal as strong German resistance prevented a breakthrough to Trun.
  • Wikipedia: Operation Tractable
  • After the Gunpowder Plot, James sanctioned harsh measures for controlling non-conforming English Catholics.
  • Wikipedia: James VI and I
  • Among the hardships suffered by the Puerto Ricans was the lack of warm clothing during the cold, harsh winters.
  • Wikipedia: Military history of Puerto Rico
  • As in the previous attempt, Tahmasp avoided confrontation with the Ottoman army and instead chose to retreat, using scorched earth tactics in the process and exposing the Ottoman army to the harsh winter of the Caucasus.
  • Wikipedia: Suleiman the Magnificent
  • Beyond that, the ancient sources contain vague allusions to Illyricum as his homeland, to his Pannonian virtues, and to his harsh upbringing along the war-torn Danube frontier.
  • Wikipedia: Maximian
  • Brown reported that incidents of racism and discrimination, which had been harsh late in his training, were substantially relieved once he became an officer.
  • Wikipedia: Jesse L. Brown
  • Compared to the mellower harmonies of Mozart's or Haydn's symphonies, or many operatic arias of the time, the symphonic poem's advanced harmonies could produce harsh or awkward music.
  • Wikipedia: Symphonic poems (Liszt)
  • Costume designer Robert Fletcher wanted to emphasize the effects of their harsh environment on Khan and his followers.
  • Wikipedia: Khan Noonien Singh
  • Despite this black mark, Tycho also began corresponding with Kepler, starting with a harsh but legitimate critique of Kepler's system; among a host of objections, Tycho took issue with the use of inaccurate numerical data taken from Copernicus.
  • Wikipedia: Johannes Kepler
  • Discontented with the harsh conditions of military life in Brazil, the foreigners readily accepted bribes from the United Provinces to not only rebel, but to also capture the Emperor so that he could be held hostage as a bargaining chip.
  • Wikipedia: Pedro I of Brazil
  • Extremophile archaea, particularly those resistant either to heat or to extremes of acidity and alkalinity, are a source of enzymes that function under these harsh conditions.
  • Wikipedia: Archaea
  • Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.
  • Wikipedia: India
  • He attended school under Sophia Dana, who would later marry George Ripley, and later studied at a school run by a particularly harsh disciplinarian, where one of his classmates was Richard Henry Dana, Jr.
  • Wikipedia: James Russell Lowell
  • However, she had a reputation for being a harsh employer and her irregular habits meant that she had difficulty finding and retaining servants.
  • Wikipedia: Murder of Julia Martha Thomas
  • In contrast, almost every action on the Klingon bridge made noise to reflect the aliens' harsh aesthetic.
  • Wikipedia: Star Trek: The Motion Picture
  • In contrast, von Huene interpreted the sediment as aeolian deposits, with the weakest animals, mostly subadults, succumbing to the harsh conditions in the desert and sinking into the mud of ephemeral water holes.
  • Wikipedia: Plateosaurus
  • In the 1950s, Coward left the UK for tax reasons, receiving harsh criticism in the press.
  • Wikipedia: Noël Coward
  • In the British Isles, northern France, the Low Countries, the northern German-speaking areas, Scandinavia and the Baltic the climate was generally too harsh for the cultivation of grapes and olives.
  • Wikipedia: Medieval cuisine
  • Jaffe noted that the low-tech method of suspending actors by wires helped the final effect, because as photographed by John Fante, very few wires had to be removed digitally in postproduction; sets were constructed so that the harsh lighting obscured wires, and entire sets were constructed on their sides so that by pulling actors up and down on the rotated sets, the characters appeared to float sideways.
  • Wikipedia: Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country
  • Johansen's concerns seemed justified, as harsh conditions for the next two weeks—temperatures as low as −58 °C (−72 °F)—prevented the men from leaving.
  • Wikipedia: Amundsen's South Pole expedition
  • Knut's restricted diet, necessary to curtail his natural weight gain necessary to survive harsh winters, made headlines outside of Germany.
  • Wikipedia: Knut (polar bear)
  • Minnesotans have learned to embrace their long, harsh winters in ice sports such as skating, hockey, curling, and broomball, and snow sports such as cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, snowshoeing, and snowmobiling.
  • Wikipedia: Minnesota
  • Most are loud and penetrating, and consist of harsh single notes.
  • Wikipedia: Noisy Miner
  • Natural selection has also played a role, as the harsh Icelandic climate eliminated many horses through cold and starvation.
  • Wikipedia: Icelandic horse
  • Schools with less harsh training methods began to appear in 1930, but all schools were closed down in 1931 after the Japanese invasion.
  • Wikipedia: Peking opera